When conducted according to regulations, years of research has shown that land application of biosolids is safe. However, concerns do still remain regarding soil and groundwater contamination from trace elements, toxic chemicals, and potentially harmful disease-causing organisms. In response to these concerns, the EPA in the United States of America conducted a comprehensive risk assessment that evaluated the health risk to the general population as well as to a highly exposed individual. To date, there have been no documented cases of negative impacts to human health when a biosolids program has met all the federal and state requirements.
This is the same for Australia. There is no evidence that the beneficial use of biosolids has led to negative human health impacts. To be absolutely sure, the Australian water industry is undertaking further detailed research and risk assessment. Additionally, various Environmental Management Systems and Quality Management Systems are employed. The water industry in Australia and New Zealand complies with regulatory requirements and Guidelines put in place by relevant regulatory authorities in the various Australian States and Territories and federally, and in New Zealand, providing further levels of safety and risk minimisation.